NASA’s DAVINCI space probe will dive into the hellish atmosphere of Venus

NASA’s DAVINCI mission will study the origin, evolution and current state of Venus in unprecedented detail from cloud tops to the planet’s surface. The mission’s goal is to help answer long-standing questions about our neighboring planet, particularly whether Venus was ever wet and habitable like Earth. Credit: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

Last year, NASA selected the DAVINCI mission as part of its Discovery program. It will study the origin, evolution and current state of[{” attribute=””>Venus in unparalleled detail from near the top of the clouds to the planet’s surface. Venus, the hottest planet in the solar system, has a thick, toxic atmosphere filled with carbon dioxide and an incredible pressure of pressure is 1,350 psi (93 bar) at the surface.

Named after visionary Renaissance artist and scientist Leonardo da Vinci, the DAVINCI mission Deep Atmosphere Venus Investigation of Noble gases, Chemistry, and Imaging will be the first probe to enter the Venus atmosphere since

Now, in a recently published paper, NASA scientists and engineers give new details about the agency’s Deep Atmosphere Venus Investigation of Noble gases, Chemistry, and Imaging (DAVINCI) mission, which will descend through the layered Venus atmosphere to the surface of the planet in mid-2031. DAVINCI is the first mission to study Venus using both spacecraft flybys and a descent probe.

DAVINCI, a flying analytical chemistry laboratory, will measure critical aspects of Venus’ massive atmosphere-climate system for the first time, many of which have been measurement goals for Venus since the early 1980s. It will also provide the first descent imaging of the mountainous highlands of Venus while mapping their rock composition and surface relief at scales not possible from orbit. The mission supports measurements of undiscovered gases present in small amounts and the deepest atmosphere, including the key ratio of hydrogen isotopes – components of water that help reveal the history of water, either as liquid water oceans or steam within the early atmosphere.

NASA has selected the DAVINCI+ (Deep Atmosphere Venus Investigation of Noble-gases, Chemistry and Imaging+) mission as part of its Discovery program, and it will be the first probe to enter the atmosphere of Venus since NASA’s Pioneer Venus in 1978 and Vega of the USSR in 1985. Named after the visionary Renaissance artist and scientist Leonardo da Vinci, the DAVINCI+ mission will bring 21st century technologies to the world next door. DAVINCI+ can reveal if Earth’s sister planet was more like Earth’s twin planet in the distant, possibly hospitable past, complete with oceans and continents. Credit: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

The mission’s Carrier, Relay and Imager (CRIS) spacecraft has two onboard instruments that will study the planet’s clouds and map its mountainous areas during flybys of Venus and also drop a small descent probe with five instruments that will provide a mix of new measures. with great precision during its descent towards the infernal surface of Venus.

“This dataset of chemical, environmental and descent imagery will paint a picture of the layered atmosphere of Venus and how it interacts with the surface in the mountains of Alpha Regio, which is twice the size of the Texas,” said lead author Jim Garvin. of the article in the Planetary Science Journal and DAVINCI Principal Investigator of NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. “These measurements will allow us to assess historical aspects of the atmosphere as well as detect special rock types on the surface, such as granites, while looking for telltale landscape features that could tell us about erosion or degradation. ‘other training processes.’

DAVINCI probe near the surface of Venus

DAVINCI will send a one-meter-diameter probe to brave the high temperatures and pressures near the surface of Venus to explore the atmosphere from above the clouds to near the surface of terrain that would have could have been an ancient continent. During its last kilometers of descent in free fall (artist’s impression here), the probe will capture for the first time spectacular images and chemical measurements of the deepest atmosphere of Venus. Credit: NASA/GSFC/CI Labs

DAVINCI will use three Venus gravity assists, which save fuel by using the planet’s gravity to alter the speed and/or direction of the CRIS flight system. The first two gravity assists will set up CRIS for a flyby of Venus to perform ultraviolet and near-infrared remote sensing, acquiring more than 60 gigabits of new atmospheric and surface data. The third Venus gravity assist will configure the spacecraft to release the probe for entry, descent, science and landing, as well as tracking transmission to Earth.

The first flyby of Venus will take place six and a half months after launch and it will take two years to bring the probe into position for entry into the atmosphere above Alpha Regio under ideal lighting at “high noon”, in the goal of measuring landscapes of Venus at scales ranging from 328 feet (100 meters) to less than one meter. Such scales allow lander-type geological studies in the mountains of Venus without requiring a landing.

The DAVINCI deep atmosphere probe descends through the dense carbon dioxide atmosphere of Venus

The DAVINCI deep atmosphere probe descends through the dense carbon dioxide atmosphere of Venus toward the Alpha Regio Mountains. Credit: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

Once the CRIS system is about two days away from Venus, the probe flight system will be released with the three-foot (one meter) diameter titanium probe safely locked inside. The probe will begin to interact with Venus’ upper atmosphere about 120 kilometers above the surface. The science probe will begin scientific observations after dropping its heat shield approximately 67 kilometers above the surface. With the heat shield jettisoned, the probe inlets will ingest atmospheric gas samples for detailed chemical measurements of the kind that have been performed on[{” attribute=””>Mars with the Curiosity rover. During its hour-long descent to the surface, the probe will also acquire hundreds of images as soon as it emerges under the clouds at around 100,000 feet (30,500 meters) above the local surface.

“The probe will touch-down in the Alpha Regio mountains but is not required to operate once it lands, as all of the required science data will be taken before reaching the surface.” said Stephanie Getty, deputy principal investigator from Goddard. “If we survive the touchdown at about 25 miles per hour (12 meters/second), we could have up to 17-18 minutes of operations on the surface under ideal conditions.”

DAVINCI is tentatively scheduled to launch June 2029 and enter the Venusian atmosphere in June 2031.

“No previous mission within the Venus atmosphere has measured the chemistry or environments at the detail that DAVINCI’s probe can do,” said Garvin. “Furthermore, no previous Venus mission has descended over the tesserae highlands of Venus, and none have conducted descent imaging of the Venus surface. DAVINCI will build on what Huygens probe did at Titan and improve on what previous in situ Venus missions have done, but with 21st century capabilities and sensors.”

Reference: “Revealing the Mysteries of Venus: The DAVINCI Mission” by James B. Garvin, Stephanie A. Getty, Giada N. Arney, Natasha M. Johnson, Erika Kohler, Kenneth O. Schwer, Michael Sekerak, Arlin Bartels, Richard S. Saylor, Vincent E. Elliott, 24 May 2022, The Planetary Science Journal.
DOI: 10.3847/PSJ/ac63c2

NASA Goddard is the principal investigator institution for DAVINCI and will perform project management for the mission, provide science instruments as well as project systems engineering to develop the probe flight system. Goddard also leads the project science support team with an external science team from across the US. Discovery Program class missions like DAVINCI complement NASA’s larger “flagship” planetary science explorations, with the goal of achieving outstanding results by launching more smaller missions using fewer resources and shorter development times. They are managed for NASA’s Planetary Science Division by the Planetary Missions Program Office at Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama.

Major partners for DAVINCI are Lockheed Martin, Denver, Colorado, The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory in Laurel, Maryland, NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, Malin Space Science Systems, San Diego, California, NASA’s Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia, NASA’s Ames Research Center at Moffett Federal Airfield in California’s Silicon Valley, and KinetX, Inc., Tempe, Arizona, as well as the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor.

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